SARS-CoV-2 ELISA Kits

SARS-CoV-2 ELISA Kits

In-depth research is required to understand and uncover the innate and adaptive immune responses elicited by COVID-19 infection and the immunological and cardiovascular pathways that likely contribute to disease severity. This research will contribute to the development of a vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the development of therapeutics and anti-virals to prevent and/or repress SARS-CoV-2 infection. To support COVID-19 research we have developed some key biological research tools including Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) products.

ELISA is a widely-used antibody based technique to measure antibodies or antigens in biological samples. COVID-19 ELISA assay kits are useful immunological research tools. If a patient has been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the presence of viral antigens can be sampled and detected using ELISA.

In an ELISA, antibodies specific to the viral antigens are coated on the ELISA plate wells, followed by the addition of a sample. If the sample is positive for viral antigens, they will bind to the specific antibodies. Detection of viral antigen occurs following the addition of a detection antibody which is conjugated to enzyme. Antibodies of SARS-CoV-2 that can be used in an ELISA detection kit include the spike antibody, envelope antibody, membrane antibody, nucleocapsid antibody and the elevated presence of IgG and IgM antibody.

ELISA kits can be used can identify whether or not a person has been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and if immunity against the infection has been developed. Successful and rapid COVID-19 detection is extremely critical. ELISA Genie SARS-CoV-2 ELISA kits are beneficial to detect antibodies produced by the immune response against SARS-COV-2 in human serum/plasma.

SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid, Spike Protein and IgG & IgM

IgG and IgM responses in COVID-19

There are several immune responses that occur following COVID-19 exposure. The two main types of antibodies produced against surface proteins of SARS-CoV-2 are IgG and IgM. Early studies on seroconversion suggest the production of these antibodies in COVID-19 patients typically occurs between 7 and 11 days after exposure, with IgM antibodies appearing first, followed by IgG antibodies. IgG is the most abundant immunoglobulin to be produced in response to an antigen and is maintained in the body after initial exposure for long term response. IgM is the first immunoglobulin to be produced in response to an antigen and is primarily detected during the early onset of disease.

ELISA Genie COVID-19 ELISA kits are useful tools for the qualitative detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 virus in human serum to aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19.

The SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and its Receptor Binding Domain (RBD)

For patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, B cell responses are activated firstly against the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2. A few days after symptoms present, antibody responses against the spike protein of the virus present themselves.

The spike protein is a heavily-glycosylated, cell-surface protein which mediates viral entry into host cells. Spike protein is necessary for attachment to susceptible cells. The spike protein is composed of both an S1 domain and S2 domain. S1 contains a receptor-binding domain. Here, the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein mediates an interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Neutralising antibody responses, mainly to the Spike protein, begin to develop by week 2 of infection onset and most patients develop neutralising antibodies by week 3.

Controlling the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 partially depends upon early diagnosis and confirmation of the disease by laboratory tests. Due to the role that spike protein plays in inducing neutralization antibodies in the host, the quantitative detection of of Spike protein concentrations in patient samples is a beneficial tool. ELISA Genie COVID-19 ELISA kits can be used for the quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 S1 antigen.

The RBD of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 has shown promise as an antigen for specific antibody detection. This is due to the RBD of the spike protein being poorly conserved between other pathogenic human coronaviruses. ELISA Genie Spike RBD protein kits are a beneficial tool for detecting Covid-19-specific antibodies in biological samples.

SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid, Spike Protein and IgG & IgM ELISA Kits

SKU Product Name Assay Type Species

HUES03618

ELISA Kit

SARS-CoV-2

HUES03617

ELISA Kit

SARS-CoV-2

CBK04144

ELISA Kit

SARS-CoV-2

CBK04137

ELISA Kit

SARS-CoV-2

CBK04145

ELISA Kit

SARS-CoV-2

CBK04135

ELISA Kit

SARS-CoV-2

CBK04138

ELISA Kit

SARS-CoV-2

SARS-CoV-2 and Cytokine Release Syndrome

Cytokine Release Syndrome in COVID-19

A Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS), also called a cytokine storm, is a systemic inflammatory response characterised by a large and dysregulated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Under homeostatic conditions, t-cells & cytokines help to coordinate the immune system’s defense against pathogens. However, large quantities of cytokines can spur the recruitment of mass amounts of immune cells, causing widespread inflammation along with a decrease in the functionality of local organs affected.

Cytokine storm is thought to be associated with disease severity in COVID-19. At present, multiple therapeutics target the pathways which are affected by the pro-inflammatory cytokines of CRS. Blocking IL-6 in particular is an attractive treatment option which has received considerable pharmaceutical and media investment. CRS most commonly begins with a fever and flu-like symptoms, but can quickly worsen. Patients who develop the syndrome generally recover within two weeks; most do not suffer repercussions or long-term effects after CRS has been treated.

Cytokine Release Syndrome Pathogenesis

The pathogenesis of CRS is still not entirely understood. However, certain key mediators of cytokine release syndrome have been identified. Chief among these is interleukin 6 (IL-6), an activator of the JAK/STAT signalling pathway which can bind to two forms of its receptor (soluble and transmembrane).

IL-6, along with IL-10 and IFNγ are the cytokines most consistently implicated in CRS. These three cytokines are usually elevated in the serum of patients with cytokine storm. TNF, IL-1, IL-8 and MCP-1 are more prominent early in CRS onset, with IL-6 produced later in the progression of the syndrome in higher quantities. IL-6 production is increased by TNF and IL-1, thus linking the signal of early-response cytokines to late onset profiles.

Cytokine Storm ELISA Kits

SKU Product Name Assay Type Spcecies

HUFI00262

ELISA Kit

Human

HUES01423

ELISA Kit

Human

HUFI00184

ELISA Kit

Human

HUFI00180

ELISA Kit

Human

HUFI00196

ELISA Kit

Human

HUFI00003

ELISA Kit

Human

HUFI00065

ELISA Kit

Human

HUFI00483

ELISA Kit

Human

HUES02952

ELISA Kit

Human