Immunotherapy has become a pillar of cancer treatment and has demonstrated great success in many tumour types including non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma and breast cancer. In particular the “Immune checkpoint inhibitors” have improved outcomes for some of the most dismal cancers. As such, the discovery of the two inhibitory receptors that are primarily targeted (PD-1 and CTLA-4) was awarded the Nobel prize in physiology and medicine in 2018 (Nobel Prize, 2018). While responders to the checkp
IntroductionImmunometabolism is an exponentially growing, multi-disciplinary field of research aiming at deciphering the dynamic cellular and molecular mechanisms that interweave metabolic and immunological processes together. Although the term “immunometabolism” first appeared in the literature in 2011, the first studies investigating the connection between immune and metabolic disorders date back to the late 19th century. Our expanding understanding of how different immune cell functions corre
Throughout my graduate and postgraduate studies I have been really intrigued and fascinated by the mitochondria, the organelle that keeps all of us running everyday! The more I learn about them, the more intricate they get.
Historical Perspective on Mitochondria Function
Traditionally, mitochondria were known to be a static organelle that is involved in energy production, earning the nickname “powerhouse of the cell”. But, in recent years we have learned that mitochondria are extremely dy
By Sophie Arthur
How many diseases and conditions do you think exist in this world? Thousands? Hundreds of thousands? Maybe even millions? Unfortunately, I don’t know the answer. But what I do know is there could be one solution to all of them! Yes, one perfect medicine of the future! The answer? Stem cells!
Stem cells, promises & superheroes
Our bodies are made up of an extraordinary amount of cells – all with their own unique shape, function and gene expression, and one of the reason
Ahmad Gazali PhD candidate, University of Eastern Finland
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease where the pancreatic β cells that produce insulin, a key hormone involved in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, are destroyed through dysregulated immune responses.
Clinical manifestations of T1D
In humans, the clinical manifestation of T1D is typically preceded by a preclinical phase in which diabetes-associated autoantibodies (DAAs) can be detected in the circul