Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures are artificially-created environments in which cells are permitted to grow or interact with their surroundings in a 3D fashion.
3D cell culture more closely resembles physiological conditions and can provide a better indicator of success in vivo. Assays and kits exist which can help cultivate and quantify 3D cell cultures.
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) is a method of gene editing that uses the Cas9 protein and specific guide RNAs to either delete host genes or insert specific gene sequences into the host genome.
CRISPR screening is used to find a small number of important genes or genetic sequences within a massive number of genetic sequences such as the entire genome.
There are three main types of CRISPR
What is antigen presentation?
Our immune system has various ways to protect us from pathogens. One of them is adaptive immunity; it mounts immune responses that are specialized, and targeted at a specific pathogen only. But how does that work and how can the immune system discriminate between different pathogens? The pathway that is responsible is called MHC class I antigen presentation pathway (Bjorkman et al. 1987a,b). It sounds complicated, but it is
Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs) are a group of homodimeric polypeptides, and
are master regulators of vascular development, maintenance and angiogenesis
(Ferrara and Davis-Smyth, 1997). VEGF is also a potent growth factor, and is
produced by macrophages and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (Melter et al, 2000; Freeman
et al, 1995). Members of the VEGF family include 5 structurally related
proteins (VEGFA-D, and placental growth fact
Chemokines are highly conserved cytokines that control the movement of cells around the body. All 45 members of the chemokine family can be divided into 4 subfamilies depending on their structure and presence of cysteine motifs (the CC chemokines, CXC CX3C and XC) and are recognised by chemokine receptors, G-protein coupled receptors with 7 transmembrane domains predominantly found on the surface of leukocytes. Upon binding of the chemokine to a cognate chemokine receptor, the recept