How to get your PhD- Seeing the forest for the trees

As summer is coming to an end you are probably feeling motivated for September, ready to churn out those results or really commit to writing your thesis and submitting by December. So now is the time to get planning and have structure for your research and be ready to battle the challenges ahead. Being under […]

Biomarkers and triggers of atherosclerosis

Biomarkers and triggers of atherosclerosis As atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory disease, there are many influential biomarkers that contribute to the disease’s progression as well as biomarkers from atherosclerosis related diseases such as periodontal disease and autoimmune diseases i.e. Diabetes, RA, SLE. Biomarkers can be proteins, DNA and mRNA which are measured to asses biological, […]

Adhesion molecules in atherosclerosis – ICAM1

Adhesion molecules Direct cell-cell interactions are maintained and regulated by cell adhesion molecules. The expression of adhesion molecules directs inflammatory responses (Walpola et al., 1994). Early adhesion molecules include P and E selectins which slow down leukocyte movements along the endothelium wall so adhesion molecules such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 can attach to the ligand […]

CXCL16 – Review

CXCL16/SR-POX gene has five exons, spans 6283 bp and is found on chromosome 17, position 17p13.2 (Huang et al., 2010) ( CXCL16, also known as SR-PSOX, is a multi-functional molecule composed of four domains, a chemokine domain attached to a mucin stack fused to a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain (Lehrke et al., 2007, Chandrasekar et […]

Physiological and Pathological functions of IL-36

By Charlotte O’Donnell Physiological functions of IL-36 Similar to IL-33, IL-36R ligands are involved in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Analogous to IL-33, IL-36γ is localised to the nuclei of intestinal epithelial cells [1]. The presence of IL-36γ in the nucleus may be due to its role as an “alarmin”. In murine models of intestinal damage such […]

The IL-36 subfamily

By Charlotte O’Donnell PhD The IL-36 subfamily The genes of the IL-36 family members are located in a cluster on chromosome 2 [1].  All three activating ligands, IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ share the classic IL-1 β-trefoil structure, and lack a signal peptide. IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ lack a signal sequence, and thus cannot be transported […]

Pathological functions of IL-33/ST2

By Charlotte O’Donnell PhD As IL-33/ST2 is such a potent inducer of inflammation, it is not surprising that dysregulation of the pathway has been linked to the pathogenesis of several autoimmune disorders. In asthma, IL-33 was shown to be a key driver of lung inflammation, as lymphocyte and eosinophil recruitment and general lung inflammation were […]

Physiological roles for IL-33

By Charlotte O’ Donnell A role for IL-33 in barrier function and epithelial wound healing IL-33 is constitutively expressed by cells involved in the maintenance of mechanical barriers, including keratinocytes, lung and gut epithelial cells, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells [1]. In these cells IL-33 is localized to the nucleus and mediates gene transcription. It […]